Monday, December 30, 2019

Palestine and Israel Essay - 2458 Words

Palestine and Israel Our views of world conflicts such as war are influenced by the part of the world in which we live. When exploring media coverage of discord, it is important to think about where the author is from and how it has influenced the way he/she has portrayed disharmony. Reports on a world conflict can express extremely different views depending on the social values and understandings of the writers. One must read articles that address the issue of war with cultural relativism by taking into account the local values and historical experiences of the writer. By neglecting this approach, a reader may be persuaded to believe biased and often untrue facts. When researching the war in the Middle East, for example, I found†¦show more content†¦The Palestinians were convinced that this was a deliberate murder. Three days later a young Palestinian picked up a stone from the ground and threw it at an Israeli patrol. His friends followed this act and soon hundreds were throwing stones. Palestinian intellectuals interpreted this action as an attempt of their youth to shake themselves free from twenty dismal years of Israeli rule. This spontaneous uprising took most by surprise. For generations Israel’s domination of Jerusalem had gone largely unchallenged. The fighting continued and the casualties that resulted were high. Most of the 1,300 deaths were Palestinians. In 1993 the international community attempted to find a permanent solution by creating the Oslo agreement. Parts of Jerusalem were officially handed over to the Palestinian self-rule authority of Yasser Arafat while the Israelis continued to control other sections. Despite the peace efforts the war is still raging strong today. Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat, and Israeli Prime Minister, Ehud Barak, are now locked in the worst shoot-out in years. Judaism’s holiest site and Islam’s third holiest site are on the same rock in Jerusalem. Arafat wants possession of al Aqsa mosque that lies in the same place as the Temple Mount, a Jewish holy sight. Various solutions have been proposed but there seems to be no easy way to divide the city between these two warring groups. The stalemate, that newspapers endlessly report, is simplyShow MoreRelatedIsrael-Palestine3340 Words   |  14 PagesIsrael-Palestine Introduction In the absence of peace, there is conflict. This might lead to war between countries if conflict is not handled carefully. Today it is almost a norm to see countries engaging others in war. Today the greatest problem facing many nations is international relation. Countries have failed to live like decent neighbors. There is disunity among many nations. War between nations is caused by mistrust and tension. Nations purchase arms to stock their armory. Major inventionsRead MoreIsrael And Palestine Conflict Between Palestine And Israel1303 Words   |  6 Pagesborders between Palestine and Israel have been unfair. The Israeli people have taken a majority of the Palestinians land. This had caused conflict between these two territories for years. The Israel and Palestine conflict has been going on for many decades and nothing seems to be able to solve this issue. All because the Israeli government is very stubborn. They are not willing to make a compromise in this situation. The main iss ues between the Palestinians and the Israelites are; Israel has been unfairRead MoreViolence in Palestine and Israel676 Words   |  3 PagesSince 1920 about 115,000 people have been killed as a directed effect of the violence in Palestine and Israel. The One State Solution would only work if both sides committed to a democracy, separation of state and religion and an end to violence because without this the states would have the same problems and not have peace. Right now democracy in Palestine is at a stand still. With elections that have not happened since 2006 the system is not working at its full potential. The leader of theRead More Israel and Palestine Essay1764 Words   |  8 PagesIsrael and Palestine The Arab-Israel conflict is a story which has taken place over a century. In order to understand the conflict between these two cultures their collective histories must be taken into consideration. It was a long and hard path for the Jewish population to get a piece of land they can call their own. A land free of religious persecution. I think that history has shown that these two states can not and will not be able to sustain peace over any period of time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  TheRead MoreEssay Israel and Palestine740 Words   |  3 Pages The Issue Of Israel and Palestinenbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In 1993, in Oslo, Norway a historic peace agreement was secretly drawn up with the hopes of bringing all the violence between the Palestinians and the Israelis to an end. Yasser Arafat, the chairman of the PLO, and Yitzhak Rabin who was prime minister of Israel at the time shook hands at the White House in front of President Bill Clinton to finalize the accords. This was the first step towards peace inRead MoreThe Partition Of Israel And Palestine966 Words   |  4 PagesSince the UN partition of Israel and Palestine in 1947, Israel has been placed in many instances of conflict between the Jewish migrants to the region and the Palestinian natives. Several conflicts resulted in open, declared war, such as the First Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949, and the Yom Kippur War of 1973. In addition, Israel has been involved in the occupation of the West Bank and the blockade of the Gaza Strip. After the last open war, Israel’s occupation of the West Bank has been marked byRead More Palestine and Israel Essay1463 Words   |  6 PagesPalestine and Israel On the day of January 18th, 2004 Israeli forces rushed through the Gaza strip and attempted a dangerous raid. The effects of the raid left eight Palestinians civilians dead in cold blood. Within twenty-four hours a young Palestinian police officer by the name of Ali Jaara climbed onto a Jerusalem bus and detonated a bomb, killing him and ten Israeli passengers. This is a very sad but common example of the never ending war that takes place not only on the battlefield but nowRead MoreThe Land Of Israel And Palestine1478 Words   |  6 Pagesadorn graves. This artifact was found in the land of Israel/Palestine. This paper will examine how this object was produced, what kind of style was used in its production and what it meant to individuals at the time. On a larger level, trading objects like this one during the Persian Period represent the strength of local tastes and cultures over nationalistic tensions between Greece and Persia. â€Æ' 2. Introduction The land of Israel/Palestine sits in an important geographic region in the middle-eastRead MoreThe Israel-Palestine Conflict3449 Words   |  14 Pages30-40% remained opposed for religious, nationalist or security reasons. Palestinians supported ongoing attacks against Israel not to overthrow the government or take over the country and drive out the Jews, or because of irrational hatred of Jews and Israel, but only because of the continuing military occupation and expansion of settlements. Camp David didnt fail because of Israel but because according to the most pro-Arab primary account (Agha Malley) Arafat walked out after having said no toRead MoreThe Historical Area Of Israel And Palestine1493 Words   |  6 PagesThe history of the geographical area substituting Israel and Palestine is one of war and bloodshed. For nearly three millennia people have been fighting over the ‘Holy Land’ in wars that were religious in their essence. An understanding of the historic background of the area is important to comprehend the present-day reasons for the complexity of the task of conflict resolution. The simplified timeline provided below is an attempt to summarise the most important events. Since the Israelites’ conquest

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Unit 9 Ids. The “Corrupt Bargain” Of 1824 †Henry Clay,

Unit 9 IDs The â€Å"Corrupt Bargain† of 1824 – Henry Clay, speaker of the house opposed Andrew Jackson and supported John Quincy Adams. When it was time to vote, John Quincy Adams got the majority even though Jackson had the popular vote. Jackson believed Adams and Clay struck a deal that Adams would win in return for Clay becoming Secretary of State. Henry Clay – Speaker of the house accused of making the â€Å"corrupt bargain† therefore becoming an enemy of Jackson and Jacksonian democrats. Clay and Jackson opposed each other on many things including the National Bank John Quincy Adams – John Quincy Adams seeking to be the president his father wasn’t won the election in 1824. Unfortunately, his presidency was similar to his father’s in that he†¦show more content†¦South Carolina then threatened to secede from the union. While Jackson was pro-state’s rights he was against secession. Andrew Jackson threatened to send troops to South Carolina to prevent secession. Thankfully, a compromise proposed by Henry Clay in which tariffs will be reduced over the course of 10 years to which South Carolina agrees. Twelfth Amendment – The twelfth amendment describes how a president shall be chosen if they do not have the majority. This is by the House of Representatives voting for who the president should by. If the votes were tied, then the people who had the same number of votes would be the options for the house to vote on. If no one had a majority, the five highest voted people would be candidates for the presidency. Election of 1828 – John Quincy Adams ran against Andrew Jackson for the second time. This time, Andrew Jackson won with 178 votes while Adams only had 83. For the first time political campaigns were used to gain supporters. Jackson held speeches, barbecues, and other entertainments/parties. During this election, more people voted and passion over reason was a new way to vote. Spoils System – The spoils system is the firing of previous government officials who are replaced with government officials that side with the president or to whom the president owes favors. Kitchen Cabinet – Kitchen Cabinet refers to Jackson’s advisors that are personal friends and enter through the kitchen door instead of the front door. â€Å"TariffShow MoreRelatedA Description of Bleeding Kansas3703 Words   |  15 PagesUnit 2 Dcush test review Study online at 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bleeding Kansas A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent. 10% Plan This was Lincoln s reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated Read MoreThe War Of 18123664 Words   |  15 PagesShira Alcouloumre Cowles AP US History 6 November 2014 Unit 3 Packet Terms ID 1.Hartford Convention New England Federalists met in Hartford Connecticut to confer about their grievances from the War of 1812. They were concerned by growing power of federal government, even though they wanted to start new from England, the majority wanted a moderate compromise. Discussed 3/5 compromise, Louisiana Purchase, Embargo of 1807. 2.Impressment Main cause of the war of 1812, where British ships took over

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Ikea Swot Analysis Free Essays

KStrengths 1. Supply chain strategies. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Ikea Swot Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1. Packaging concept. The flat packaging is known of its IKEA which is very effective for transporting products because more products can be shipped at the same time. Consequently, transportation cost will be cheaper. Furthermore, the flat packaging reduces some materials usage. However, it has some weak areas to work on such as protection and unitization. 1. 2. New unit load carrier. IKEA has created new carrier which is called â€Å"Loading ledge†, is a flexible unit load carrier. It can save money as a part of total logistic solution and also make the transport be more volume. The loading ledge has been used for two years within IKEA’s supply chain and the result has satisfied for IKEA because it can reduce damages in good processes. 1. 3. Direct delivery. IKEA’s products are delivered directly from supplier to different stores because this is the cheapest way for distribution. Furthermore, it can decrease the transportation distance and lower carbon release. In term of process, the goods do not transport to distribution center because it can be directly to stores. This process is very efficiency and special one. So, they can save the cost of one time transport. Figure 1 Direct delivery distribution. 1. 4 Sustainable relationships. IKEA focuses on long-term supplier relationship. IKEA usually buy a large volume for a plenty of years. As a result, they can negotiate at low price. Moreover, the suppliers also gain advantages because their products are guaranteed ordering. 2. IKEA’s culture and concept. 2. 1. Powerful worldwide company. IKEA has strong global brand and concept which is guaranteed good quality at lower price. . 2. IKEA’s vision IKEA notes their goal that â€Å"to create a better everyday life for many people†. 3. Environmental perspectives. 3. 1. Green process. IKEA uses materials that are environmentally friendly. For example, renewable materials, recycling waste products, etc. 3. 2. New technology. Using new technology to reduce the amount of raw material needed. 3. 3 Effective transportation. IKEA transports their products by using rail and sea as much as possible to reduce the impact on environment. Opportunities 1. Environmentally business. IKEA believes that â€Å"environmentally focused business conduct will results in good return even in a price sensitive market†. Nowadays, consumers demand in green products is continue to increase. 2. Low price products. IKEA depends on the low-cost manufacturing countries as China and India. This is provided IKEA’s products to be cheaper. Moreover, customer’s demand of low price products is higher because the serious current financial issues. 3. Working on sustainability This is the main part of IKEA brand. This statement can be supported by: 3. 1. Relationship Building relationship and good communication with stakeholders, consumers, and co-workers are IKEA’s concept. 3. 2. Cooperate social responsibility. IKEA participate in social responsibility this include to be supporter for many charities. 3. 3 Online website. IKEA provides online tips and ideas for sustainable life at home. 3. 4 Environment IKEA uses sustainable resources, renewable energy, reducing water use, and green transportation. Weaknesses 1. IKEA size. The big size of IKEA’s business is hard to control quality and standards. For example, quality of product is concern in some regions. . Inconvenience located. The flagship stores are located far away from the city center; as a consequence, consumers have to travel a long distance to get to the stores. Moreover, they also have to collect a large in convenience packages to take them home. 3. Diverse market. The difference tastes of consumers in different regions. IKEA has many stores in different region. So, they h ave to adapt the style of products in order to satisfy each region consumers. Threats 1. Competitors. The growth of competitors, they can enter the low cost household and furnishers markets. Furthermore, they act like IKEA’s style which is the model of low cost products and flat packaging. 1. 1 Offering services. A better services offering from competitors. For instance, they offer home delivery, free installation, etc. 1. 2 More products. The larger suppliers such as Tesco and Walmart, they do not sell only home furniture, also offer electronics, groceries, etc. 2. Economic situation. The target group of IKEA is consumers with limited financial income. Therefore, this economic situation will impact and influence IKEA’s business due to a slow down consumer spending and income reduces. IKEA’s SWOT analysis| Strengths| Weaknesses| 1. Supply chain strategies. 2. IKEA’s culture and concept. 3. Environmental perspectives. | 1. IKEA size. 2. Inconvenience located. 3. Diverse market. | Opportunities| Threats| 1. Environmentally business. 2. Low price products. 3. Working on sustainability. | 1. Competitors. 2. Economic situation. | Gap analysis Next 0-3 years Present Issue| Aspect| ? A weak online support. – IKEA lack of online purchasing options. It forces customers to go to stores. This probably causes losing some profits due to inconvenience located of some stores.? Do It Yourself – The target group of IKEA may require convenience installation. IKEA does not provide this point. Sometimes IKEA has overlooked their customers.? Using the new unit load carrier takes longer time than traditional one.? Due to increasing material flows, DC needs the effective solutions to handle it.? The distribution will increase in IKEA supply chain.? Over stock.? A lack of innovation of products? The highly flow of visitors which cause a long queues to check out. This is due to a lack of manpower. | ? Developing the online stores to compete with its competitors. Also, increasing online purchase by a space simulator.? The IKEA competitors, they offer delivery products and free installation with good ability technicians. IKEA will provide immediate purchase and take home, and offer service but allows customers make their own decisions.? Providing information and knowledge of the new unit load carrier is very important to use it efficiently. It is also decreasing a damage and waste of products.? A great handled can reduce effect at DC by using, for example automatic picking.? Balance supply chain by using supported software and better management.? Hiring new generations staffs which are diverse of personalities. Consequently, they can create some new innovated products.? IKEA uses Beonic’s  tra? c insight  visitor flow system to ensure its checkout never short staffs. | The times 100 business case studies, viewed 13 Aug 2012, http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/ikea/ Jonsson A. and Mathiasen B. , 2004, Consequences of the implementation of the Loading Ledge, Lund Institute of Technology Mehnaz S. , Case analysis IKEA, viewed 13 Aug 2012 http://www. scribd. com/doc/59951004/Case-Analysis-IKEA How to cite Ikea Swot Analysis, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Les Miserables free essay sample

The Single Path of Javert In the novel, Les Miserables, Victor Hugo displays a lifestyle of a police officer named Javert with only one purpose; to serve justice. In the novel, Javert acts to what he truly believes is morally correct, but when his conscience gets the best of him, he overlooks his way of life leading up to his suicide. Javert has always been one to follow the law and believes there is a certain way of doing things and punishing people, even if it means his death. During the peasants revolt at the barricade, a man named Enjolras questions him for being a spy and asks who he is, Javert tells him, â€Å"I am an officer of the government†(359). Javert does not lie or try to fight back because he believes he should be killed. Jean Valjean, a former convict Javert has been trying to jail for years tells the peasants he will kill him, but secretly spares his life instead. We will write a custom essay sample on Les Miserables or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Unable to comprehend Jean Valjean’s act of mercy, Javert says, â€Å"Kill me rather†(387). In return, Javert later spares Jean Valjean from being sentenced to life in the galleys by allowing him to escape. This is the first time Javert has not followed the law, which subsequently leads to his demise. Javert never feels bad about punishing someone, if the law has been broken, the fate of the suspect has already been determined. Unfortunately, in Jean Valjean’s case, Javert allows his core values to be compromised by allowing Jean Valjean to escape, which he later regrets. After releasing Jean Valjean, Javert sees a different way of life which frightens him, â€Å" He saw before him two roads, both equally straight; but he saw two, and that terrified him†(408). After a lifetime of following the law, Javert cannot cope with the fact that he himself broke the law by not bringing Jean Valjean to justice. Javert is still in shock of his actions and in his confusion, he concludes, â€Å" In the first case, the man of authority would fall lower than the man of the galley; in the second, a convict rose higher than the law and set his foot upon it. In both cases, dishonor to Javert. In every course which was open to him, there was a fall†(409). Javert believes that no matter what he decides to do, either take Jean Valjean prisoner, or set him free, he will be disappointed in himself. Ultimately, because of Javert’s value system of always serving justice and following the law, he experiences a crisis of conscience which fundamentally leads to his termination.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Organizations culture

Introduction Culture in an organization refers to the values, beliefs, history and attitudes of a particular organization. Culture also refers to the ideals of an organization that dictate the way members of the organization relate to each other and to the outside environment.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organization’s culture specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An organization’s culture defines its values; the values of an organization refer to the ideology that the members of an organization have as pertains their goals and the mechanisms to be used to achieve these goals. The organization’s values map out the way employees are required to behave and relate to each other in the workplace (Allan, 2004). There is a very important need to develop healthy cultures in all organizations whether they are religious, commercial or institutional. The culture of an organization determines how it is p erceived both by its own employees and its stakeholders. The managers of an organization are said to be able to influence the culture of the organization. This can be done by the implementation of various policies that lead to a culture change. Many organizations have two types of cultures, the culture that management wants to enforce and a culture that dictates the relationships of the employees among each other. Many institutions have been found to have a persistent and hidden culture among the employees. This is the biggest task to organizational management; how to replace the employee culture with the desired culture (Young, 2007). There are two types of culture; namely strong culture and weak culture. Strong culture is whereby the actions and beliefs of the employees are guided by the values of the company. Such a culture ensures smooth and efficient flow of an organization’s activities. Strong cultures result in successful and united organizations. Weak culture on the o ther hand refers to instances where the activities of the employees are not guided by the values of the company. A weak culture results in the need for a strict administration that is bureaucratic so as to ensure that the company’s activities flow well. Weak cultures result in increased overheads and under motivated employees. Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fig. 1: Organization culture (Burke, 1999). There are five dimensions of an organization’s culture namely power distance, risk taking tendencies, gender issues and employee psychology. The power distance aspect refers to the mentality among the employees on who wields more power and how much power they wield. This will vary among organizations as some have more powerful managers as compared to others. Risk taking tendencies refers to the willingness of the employees and the organization to take risks in an attempt to grow and improve (Jack et al, 2003). Employee psychology on the other hand is an aspect that covers issues such as individualism and collectiveness mentalities in an organization. Companies that have a collective psychology have been found to work and do well as compared to individualistic ones. The individualistic psychology has been found to cause a lack of coordination and flow of activities in organizations. Lastly the gender dimension refers to the mentality of an organization’s employees towards members of the male and female genders. Companies that view women as weaker and disadvantaged sexes have been found to discriminate among each other and result in a reduction of the employee cooperation levels (Jack et al, 2003). There are four types of cultures in modern day organizations, role cultures, power cultures, person cultures and task cultures. Role cultures exist in organized and systematic organizations where the amount of power that an employee has is d etermined by the need that they fulfill in the organization. Power cultures are those that have a few powerful individuals who are required to drive and direct the rest of the organization. Person cultures are cultures that exist when an organization’s employees feel superior to the company; this is a common culture in most law firms and firms that are formed by individual professionals who merge with others to form organizations. A tasks culture is a culture that is geared towards accomplishing tasks and doing things. Organisational culture and project management structure It is very important to understand the culture of an organization so as to enable an organization to map out the type of management that suits it. Culture as mentioned, is the accepted standard in which the employees of an organization relate to each other and to the stakeholders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organization’s culture specifically for you for only $1 6.05 $11/page Learn More There are several factors that affect the culture of an organization. These include technological exposure, environmental conditions, geographical situation, organizational rules and procedures and influence of organizational peers on a subject. Such factors affect the culture of an organization and in the long run its management structure (Johnstone et al, 2002). Organizational cultures can have both positive and negative effects on the organization. Negative and unwanted cultures are those that oppose change in an organization. These cultures have the tendency of inhibiting the innovation and implementation of change in an organization. Therefore the understanding of an organization’s culture can be used to determine: Why certain projects of the organization have failed or are failing Aspects of the culture that hinder innovation and change What needs to corrected so as to improve how the organization operates The origin of certain c ulture within an organization Measures that can be taken so as to introduce new culture or improve on the current culture An in depth understanding of an organization’s culture is important so as to allow project managers and other managers to affect the mode in which activities are carried out. To influence the performance of the organization an understanding of its cultures is very necessary so as it enables the management to filter its employees and choose performers from non performers (Johnstone et al, 2002). The proper understanding of organizational culture and its use in deciding a suitable management structure cannot be stressed further. The success of a project depends on how it is managed. There are three major types of project management namely; project, functional and matrix management structures. Functional management refers to the type of management that focuses on specialty areas and skills. The departments and responsibilities are determined by the skills of the members. There is vertical and horizontal communication between the departments. To allow operation of all arms of the organization bureaucratic means are used so as to ensure smooth flow of the business. This type of management tends to reduce operational costs and encourage the specialization of labour. Specialization in turn leads to better efficiency and standardization of activities. Disadvantages of the functional approach include the integration of budgets, operational plans and procedures into the project activities making it cumbersome to implement (Kloppenborg, 2009). Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fig.1: Functional project management (Young, 2007). Project based organization on the other hand is whereby the activities of a company are organized according to its ongoing projects. This type of management is based on the objectivity principle that emphasizes the importance of solid objectives in improving the efficiency of an organization’s processes. This principle is used in scenarios that require the efficient management of projects that involve activities from different disciplines e.g. medicine, engineering, law. The advantages of such management techniques include the fact that power and responsibility is decentralized and is carried out by managers of different teams. Such a management technique also allows for the proper utilization of time, leads to reduced cost and enhanced quality levels. Such a management technique is suitable for certain company profiles and cultures, for example: Management of large projects and organizations that require the delegation of responsibilities Situations with restricted cost and specification parameters Situations that require the coordination and completion of projects from different but interrelated disciplines In cultures that value responsibility and accountability of ones actions / decisions Cultures that encourage communication among all management levels Fig. 2: Example of a project based management (Allan, 2004). The project based management structure also faces a few limitations like any other structure. Limitations include the inability of a project manager to mobilize all the resources of a company as he has direct control of only what falls under his area of specialty. Employees and managers of such projects have been found to become slack towards the termination of projects due to the fear of losing their jobs once their projects have been completed (Kloppenborg, 2009). Due to the limitations of both the operational and functional management structures the matrix was developed. This structu re combines both structures to form a hybrid structure. In this type of structure there are two types of managers, namely functional and operational who work together in the same system. The functional managers are responsible for the distribution of resources in their specialty departments and the operational managers coordinate and manage the activities of their departments. The functional managers are also responsible for overseeing all the technical decisions that fall under their departments. This method of management has its advantages such as: the project manager oversees all activities that fall under his department. He has all authority and power and thus this eliminates the wastage of time as a result of quarrels and conflicts among the top levels of an organization. Secondly the manager is able to use organization resources in facilitating the execution of the intended goals and objectives of the company. Disadvantages include the conflicts and coercion between project ma nagers and functional managers that is bound to occur in such a setting. This kind of relationship has an eventual effect on employee motivation as it often results in the demoralization of employees (Young, 2007). Fig. 3: Matrix management structure (Burke, 1999) There are various factors that are considered when choosing the management structure of a project. These include the type of activities to be carried out, their importance / order of priority, the human skill required, the amount of time needed and the resources that are required to accomplish the set targets. Situations that require extensive cooperation and interaction of the functions of an organization require matrix types of management. However there is no optimum type of organization and the organization must strive to come up with solutions to its unique needs and situations. For a project to be well managed a healthy culture of communication must be developed. Communication theories propose that the project manage r should always be like the hub of a bicycle. This means that the project manager acts as a focal point through which suggestions and results are received from various stakeholders. The project manager also acts as the supporting point for the communication wheel. It is therefore very important for project managers to assist in maintaining a good communicative culture within the organization (Burke, 1999). Factors such as nature of businesses in which the organization is in, size of projects and type of projects will also have a strong impact on the type of management structure that an organization may use. Formal management structure vs culture of parent organisation Formal management has an overall effect on the operations of an organization. The type of management that an organization has ultimately affects how its activities are carried out. Formal management is important in an organization as it serves as a foundation on which an organization’s goals and principles are g uided. There are various guidelines that dictate the behavior and characters of managers in formal systems. Managers in formal managements are required to have high integrity / moral standards, should be an effective communicators and listeners of others. Managers serve as the basis through which a formal management system is enforced. The project manager should also relate well with people. He should have the ability to motivate and influence his workers positively. The project manager is also bestowed with the responsibility of ensuring that all aspects and stakeholders of a project work together for the common good of the organization. The manager is also responsible for setting time frames and ensuring that the project adheres to the set schedules. This serves the purpose of ensuring that there is timely flow of an organization’s activities. Project managers are also required to make assessment of risks that could affect a project and try to manage the risks. In summary, project managers make up the backbone of any formal project management system and the performance of any project depends on the managers themselves (Burke, 1999). There are three distinct characteristics that define a formal management structure; formality, the presence of groupings and the implementation of various systems. There exist rules and regulations that govern the relationships of the members of the organization. These rules also guide the reporting mechanisms of the members and the responsibilities / power which each member holds. These rules and regulations form the basis of all relationships and activities within the organization. Formal organizations also group their members into teams and taskforces that are designed to suit various needs within the organization. For example accountants will usually be grouped together, designers with fellow designers and so forth. The groupings form departments and many departments form the organization. However formal management has been said to be a very rigid mechanism by which an organization / project should be kept in check. This is because failure on the part of the managers would result in the total collapse of the organization. This is because managers are expected to provide guidance, direction and ensure that all members perform their duties. Culture on the other hand is a better driver as it does not need to be enforced by anyone. Culture is self driven and once the members of an organization have adopted a desirable culture they will conduct themselves in accord to the culture without being supervised by a manager (Johnstone et al 2002). Culture is also a better means of ensuring that a project is completed as it allows people to go out of the set boundaries and make innovations. Culture driven projects are better as they allow for unified and independent thinking at the same time. Whereas a formal management structure relies on the manager to make decisions a culture driven project accepts all dec isions as long as they fall under the culture boundaries of the organization. Formal management structures are slow and time consuming. This is because all major decisions and control is dependent on the managers. This leads to a very slow decision making process as the managers have to receive reports from members, deliberate on the reports and then give their recommendations. In cases where the manager is slow or is not presence this hinders the further development of the project (Young, 2007). Many organizations that employ the formal type of management usually group their employees into departments. The departments are usually made up of people with common skills and areas of expertise. However such departmental setups hinder the exchange and sharing of ideas between people of different areas of expertise. Due to the formal setup members from different departments lack a common factor that would enhance cooperation between the departments. This leads to poor coordination between the departments. In culture driven organizations, the members are unified by the common culture and this enhances the cooperation levels of the employees. Culture driven projects are therefore much more organized and have a better flow of activities as compared to formal projects (Kloppenborg, 2009). Formal management of projects requires the mapping out and development of clear cut systems that will ensure the smooth flow of the project. These systems are essential in ensuring efficient execution of the project and its activities. Culture driven projects however do not need such a system so as to run smoothly. The culture itself forms a dynamic system through which all the activities are executed effectively. Strategic management is a major component of formal management systems. It involves the science and methodologies of formulating cross functional parameters that enable an organization to achieve its objectives. Strategic management involves the development of missions and vi sions, mapping out of objectives and the making of critical decisions for the company (Allan, 2004). Projects in formal management are stepping stones on which a firm uses to achieve its goals and objectives. The project development processes of a firm are driven by its strategic development goals and objectives. Examples of strategic elements include mission, objective, goals, programs and workable strategies. Formal management is however beneficial as it promotes proper and sober decision making as compared to culture based management. This is because decision making and planning activities in a formal management are usually done after careful consideration and assessment. Culture based management is however prone to errors and misguided actions due inadequate consideration and thinking. Conclusion From the study it is evident that culture is an important aspect of any organization. Culture has been found to affect the behavioral attitudes of a company’s employees and the m anner through which these attitudes are manifested. The strong impacts of culture have resulted in the need for managers to find ways to affect the culture of their employees and of the work places. By influencing the culture of an organization the managers are therefore able to influence the way the organization operates. Culture is an unsaid norm which the members of an organization abide to (Jack et al, 2003). Organizations implement different types of organization structures. The type of organization structure implemented depends on the size and project characteristics. The type of project management has an effect on the eventual delivery of the project. The study has shown that there is no perfect method of management. Managers of projects are therefore required to assess and identify the appropriate structure for their specific conditions. Project management structures have a great effect on the quality and effectiveness of the organization’s activities (Allan, 2004). T he study has brought to light the importance of proper culture in an organization. Culture has been found to be a better determinant of employee behavior as compared to formal management. Formal management is dependent on the enforcement of those in authority / wield power. Culture on the other hand is enforced by the members themselves as they are part and pertinent of the culture. Formal management has also been found to be excessively bureaucratic and procedural and thus its implementation is rather cumbersome and expensive. Culture has therefore been found as the most appropriate way of managing a project. References Allan, B., 2004. Project Management: tools and techniques for today’s ILS professional.  London: Facet Publishing. Ashish, D., 2010. Project management Module. Hull: University of Hull. Burke, R., 1999. Project Management, Planning and control Techniques. Chichester: Wiley. Jack, M. Mentel, S., 2003. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. New Jersey: W iley and Sons. Johnston, R. Chambers, S. Slack, N., 2002. Operations management. Essex: Pearson Publishers. Kloppenborg, T., 2009. Project management A Contemporary. Chicago: Xavier University. Young, T., 2007. The Handbook of Project Management, A practical Guide to Effective  Policies and Procedures. Washington: Kogan Page publishers. This essay on Organization’s culture was written and submitted by user Cap'nOz to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Descartes First Meditations

In Descartes work on â€Å"First Meditations† he raises many questions concerning his beliefs with respect to reality. Is Descartes existence real, or is he an illusion of his own imagination. Is his life tangible or he only exists because he thinks he exists. The starting point for Descartes philosophy is not using his senses to acquire information about his existence or reality, but, using his mind knowledge, the dream problem, and, the possibility of a deceiving God to show the uncertainty of many common beliefs. Renà © Descartes existence relies on his knowledge of himself and what he knows to be a true reality. Descartes suggest that physics, astronomy, and medical knowledge is not significant and doubtful, but, mathematics is a certainty. Renà © Descartes believes that the knowledge of the mind is more certain that the senses. For example, what you see cannot be true because your mind has knowledge that it is impossible to be true. A question he raises is the idea that if our dreams seemed so real then how would one know the difference between the dream world and the real world. There is his doubt that he does not exist and that he is only dreaming of this existence. He likens himself to a madman when he denies his existence. When he is asleep and is awakened, where does dreaming end and reality begin? Dreams are fashioned in the likeness of 2 things that are real. Therefore, some parts of a dream are not imaginary and are real and exist, when other parts of a dream are not real and imaginary. Renà © Descartes questions the belief that God is his creator and the creator of the universe. He ponders if God is supremely good, why would He allow Descartes to be deceived with respect to the universe existence and Descartes own existence? If God is supreme, He can take away my reality that mathematics is certain and mak... Free Essays on Descartes First Meditations Free Essays on Descartes First Meditations In Descartes work on â€Å"First Meditations† he raises many questions concerning his beliefs with respect to reality. Is Descartes existence real, or is he an illusion of his own imagination. Is his life tangible or he only exists because he thinks he exists. The starting point for Descartes philosophy is not using his senses to acquire information about his existence or reality, but, using his mind knowledge, the dream problem, and, the possibility of a deceiving God to show the uncertainty of many common beliefs. Renà © Descartes existence relies on his knowledge of himself and what he knows to be a true reality. Descartes suggest that physics, astronomy, and medical knowledge is not significant and doubtful, but, mathematics is a certainty. Renà © Descartes believes that the knowledge of the mind is more certain that the senses. For example, what you see cannot be true because your mind has knowledge that it is impossible to be true. A question he raises is the idea that if our dreams seemed so real then how would one know the difference between the dream world and the real world. There is his doubt that he does not exist and that he is only dreaming of this existence. He likens himself to a madman when he denies his existence. When he is asleep and is awakened, where does dreaming end and reality begin? Dreams are fashioned in the likeness of 2 things that are real. Therefore, some parts of a dream are not imaginary and are real and exist, when other parts of a dream are not real and imaginary. Renà © Descartes questions the belief that God is his creator and the creator of the universe. He ponders if God is supremely good, why would He allow Descartes to be deceived with respect to the universe existence and Descartes own existence? If God is supreme, He can take away my reality that mathematics is certain and mak...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

OCEANIA Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

OCEANIA - Research Paper Example However, the human exploration of the Oceania environment was not without negative effects to the environment. As a result, the change of the environment bears significant impacts to the people and the ecosystems in Oceania. The human activities have been the greatest contributors to the change in the environment. The lack of regulation among the people in the region caused them to over exploit the resources without considering its effects to the other ecosystems. The alteration of the environment caused changes to the various ecosystems in the region. For instance, the environmental changes resulted to extreme changes of the temperatures in the region. The mean temperatures were extremely high than before, and this interfered with the lives of other a biotic processes. The temperature variability over time also influences the rainfall pattern in the region. As a result, the region became prone to interactions with new pathogens and invasive species. These were groomed by the varying temperature and rainfall patterns. Moreover, the environmental changes caused the region to experience extreme cases of natural phenomenon. For example, the alteration of the environmental systems in the region resulted to occurrences of storms in the region. Moreover, there have been extreme cases of floods resulting from human activities. In addition, the accumulation of the carbon gases in the air has resulted to climate change. This is a major contributor and trigger of the temperature and rainfall variability in the region. All these variations have affected the lives of the people negatively. In addition, they have altered the natural ecosystems in the region2. The Oceania region has a unique physical geography nature. The region is divided into four regions that include Micronesia, Polynesia, Melanesia and Malaysia. All these regions are characterized by different geopolitical attributes. As neighbouring nations, the political influence of the nations would be

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Analysis Paper on the movie, Of Gods and Men by Xavier Beauvois Essay

Analysis Paper on the movie, Of Gods and Men by Xavier Beauvois - Essay Example The Algerian countryside is a beautiful background for the awful events, happening there. To my mind, spirituality of monks and their ability to stay above vicissitude and wars and gain victory in the name of their highest goal is the most impressive context, shown by the director. There is a strong historical background of the events happening in the film. The Algerian war in 1992 took away lives of 200,000 people and the Islamists killed the whole families in the name of their power in the government and their right to be elected (Jonkas, 2011). Deaths of the Algerian monks were initially acknowledged by Islamists, but later the Algerian authorities acknowledged the responsibility for their deaths. This fact makes the film even more tragic and mystical. The monks were tolerant and their attitude for the army and for the Islamists was equal: all of them were brothers for monks. Algerian monks were helping the inhabitants of the villages to remain in safety and keep the Algerian military and Islamist terrorist as far as possible from the villages (Sabbadini and Di Ceglie, 2011). On the one hand, there is a strong religious conflict: because in spite of the fact that monks prayed for the world, it finally consumed them. After the tragedy Pope John Paul II appealed for the Cistercians in 1996: â€Å"He who loves his life will lose it, while he who hates his life in this world, will keep it for eternal life. If someone wishes to serve me let him follow me, and where I am there also will my servant be. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him." (John 12:24-26). The Church is positioned as a Church of martyrs. There are evidences of death in the name of other people, even those one, who tortured these people earlier. The Trappists of Our Lady of Atlas, the Bishop of Oran, His Excellency Pierre Lucien Caverie and some of his sons and daughters on the African

Monday, November 18, 2019

The Indian Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Indian Economy - Essay Example This rising working age means more workers in the future. More workers are important, because of the concern about demand increasing over supply. The Economist reports â€Å"that demand is outpacing supply and hence the pace of growth is unsustainable.† A greater number of workers could increase production, raising the supply, to meet the demand. More workers are also important, because the number creates more consumers. This makes the demand higher, but the supply raises as well. This circle makes an economy more stable, than just the demand rising with no increase in supply. However, if just the demand was rising and not the supply, inflation and depression follow. Workers and consumers are good for an economy. The one thing that more workers will need is education. Job training should be put into place by the government. New industries, especially computer related, should be taught in vocational schools. This would help the new workers coming of age to find jobs. It would not matter how old a worker, if they had no skills. The Economist states â€Å"60% of Indias labour force is engaged in low productivity farming.† These farmers will need skills to gain production jobs within urban areas. India government reforms have made the economy grow. The trade friendly reforms have created an import/export business that is lucrative. It is also easier for foreign investment, although this has not been as widespread as hoped. Lower oil prices make the economy better. Government regulation on employees in the workplace have made for happier workers. All of these reforms are good, but more need to take effect. Indias government has ambitious plans to increase total infrastructure spending to 8% of GDP over the next five years. This will involve some increase in government spending, but the idea is for the bulk of it to be financed by public-private partnerships. Although this is a good start, but the infrastructure is in poor shaped. More

Saturday, November 16, 2019

A History Of Dna Typing And Analysis Criminology Essay

A History Of Dna Typing And Analysis Criminology Essay The discovery of DNA typing has changed the way crimes are investigated. DNA evidence can be found in blood, tissue, hair, saliva, semen, bone, and the list goes one and on. Every person has unique DNA with the exception of identical twins so being able to interpret this valuable information is incredibly useful. Without DNA typing this evidence could not be tested and interpreted. Many criminal cases would go unsolved and people who committed these crimes would still be unpunished for their actions. DNA typing has only been around since the mid 1980s, but has already had a big impact on the world. So, how did the remarkable tool come about? DNA typing is the use of DNA evidence for identification. The DNA evidence found at a crime scene can either link a person to a crime or it can eliminate them as a suspect. It is based on the observation that the genome of each person and animal is unique. This technology has only been around since the mid 1980, but it has already become an essential part of the crime laboratories investigation of a crime. DNA evidence can be stored for long periods of time making old cases that were once thought to be unsolvable now have new leads. Also DNA evidence can be used to exonerate wrongfully convicted prisoners. DNA typing can be classified into two categories; restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods or Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. In 1985 an English geneticist named Alec Jeffreys first described DNA typing. Dr. Jeffreys was attempting to trace genetic markers between members of the same family. He was specifically looking for inheritance patterns for illness and disease. X-rays of mini satellite sections of DNA were taken and examined. On September 10, 1984 Dr. Jefreys was examining several x-rays and noticed that the mini satellite section of each individual was unique from one person to another ( He developed a technique to measure the difference in the length of the DNA sequences. This allowed him to perform human identity tests. The technique Dr. Jeffreys created to examine these variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) was called restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (Butler). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms are variation in the length of a stretch of DNA. DNA is cut by restriction enzymes and these pieces of DNA contain genes and non-coding DNA. The non-coding DNA is made up of regions of repeats of the same sequence of bases. These multiple regions are known as variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). To develop a DNA profile-using RFLP is to first extract the DNA. Then cut the DNA into fragments by using restriction enzymes. Once the DNA is cut into fragments they are separated by size using gel electrophoresis. The fragments are then immobilized by transferring them into a nylon membrane. The fragments are identified and located by using a solution that contains the desired probes. To visualize the fragments requires long exposure to detection system. This step involves the probes specifically binding to their complementary VNTR fragments. After the solution is washed the RFLP profile is visualized (Butler). Many crime laboratories adopted t his method of analysis and used it throughout the rest of the 1980s and for most of the 1990s, but there were some disadvantages to the RFLP analysis (Budowle). The process takes a lot of time and a lot of effort to. A large sample of un-degraded DNA is required to perform the test. The first time DNA typing was used in a criminal case was in 1986. In the village of Narborough in Leicestershire, England two girls, Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth were sexually assaulted and murdered. The murders were done in a similar fashion leading to the suspicion that the two cases were connected in some way. One man confessed to the murder of a girl, but his DNA did not match that of the DNA recovered form semen found at the crime scenes. Blood was collected from more the 4000 men from three surrounding villages. The blood sample collected from Colin Pitchfork match the semen from both murder scenes. He was convicted of both murders and was sentenced to life in prison (Wambaugh). DNA typing evolved from the use of Dr. Jeffreys method of analysis to the use of single locus variable number of tandem repeats by RFLP analysis. DNA typing then moved to the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that was more sensitive, easier to perform, took less time, and can be automated. In 1983 Kerry Mullis discovered the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which he later won the Nobel piece prize for. This development revolutionized forensic DNA analysis. PCR is used to amplify selected sections of DNA that contains either length or sequence polymorphisms. The DQ-Alpha test was one of the first PCR test to be used in crime laboratories. The DQ-Alpha test was developed in 1991 and was based on the identification of human leukocyte antigens, which are proteins that have a known sequence. The next innovation was developed later in the 90s with short tandem repeats (STR). Short tandem repeats are kind of like VNTRs, but with very short sequences that vary from two to six base pairs . The advantage of using this method is that very small amounts of DNA are required to perform the test (Butler). DNA profiles are also very useful because they can be electronically entered into databases. The Combined DNA Index System or CODIS is a collection of databases of DNA profiles obtained from evidence samples from unsolved crimes and from known individuals convicted of particular crimes (Butler). The FBI who oversees the database started CODIS in 1998. The main goal of the CODIS system is to allow local and national law enforcement laboratories to be able to compare DNA profiles to each other electronically and to be able to link crimes to each other. The system is made up of three database levels: local, state, and national levels. The convicted offenders index qualifications for submitting a sample are determined by state legislation. Convicted offender profiles make up most of a states database. The forensic index is the second most common entry. Forensic profiles consist of forensic evidence in cases. There main purpose is to generated leads in the investigation and possibly conne cting cases to each other. Some states are required to maintain other indices such as a suspect database The National DNA Index currently contains more the seven million offender profiles and almost 269,000 forensic profiles. CODIS has produced over 90,900 hits and has help solve more than 89,600 cases (Butler). DNA analysis has evolved of the past twenty-five years and now it can be used in many different ways. A big way in which DNA is used is in the identification of individuals in mass disasters. One example is the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Centers. DNA was collected from the bone and tissue the unknown bodies, put into a database, and compared with reference samples that were collected. Only 1585 of the 2792 known deaths have been identified, but the database was reopened in 2007 and further investigations are going on. Another effort to identify unknown victims in the DNA Shoah Project, which is a database of family members of people who were in the Holocaust. The main effort of the database is to reunite families who were separated and help identify buried Holocaust victims. DNA analysis isnt just used in solving criminal cases or identifying unknown people, it is also used to check and see if something is authentic. The National Football League uses DNA technology to mark balls used in the Super Bowl to ensure authenticity and stop counterfeit merchandise. The football is marked with an invisible strand of synthetic DNA that can be read by a special laser. A similar thing occurred in the 2000 Olympic games. DNA was taken from unknown athletes and added to ink that was used mark all of the official Olympic gear (DNA Forensics). Without this remarkable tool many of the criminal investigations going on right now would go unsolved. According to Locards Exchange Principle every time a person enters any kind of environment something is left behind and something is taken away. This means that every time a criminal enters a crime scene evidence is left behind and evidence is taken away. An example is a criminal leaves behind fingerprints, pieces of hair, or semen behind at the crime scene. The offender also takes away hair and possible blood from the victim on his clothes or shoes. Without DNA typing this evidence would not be able to be linked to the crime scene. There have also been several cases were DNA evidence has been used to pardon the wrongfully accused. As the technology becomes more advanced and new methods of testing DNA are being created DNA typing will continue to revolutionize the way criminal investigations are solved as well as the creation of more new and exciting ways DNA can be used. DNA Typing Timeline 1980-Ray White describes first polymorphic RFLP marker. 1985 Alec Jeffreys develops multi-locus RFLP probes 1986-DNA testing goes public with cell mark and life codes in United States. 1988-FBI begins DNA casework with single-locus RFLP probes. 1989- TWGDAM established; NY v. Castro case raises issues over quality assurance of laboratories 1990- population statistics used with RFLP methods are questioned; PCR methods start with DQA1. 1991-Fluorescent STR markers first described; Chelex extraction. 1992-NRC 1 report; FBI starts casework with PCR-DQA1. 1993-First STR kit available; sex typing (amelogenin) developed. 1994- Congress authorizes money for upgrading state forensic labs; DNA wars declared over; FBI starts casework with PCR-PM 1995- O.J. Simpson saga makes public more aware of DNA; DNA Advisory Board setup; UK DNA Database established; FBI starts using 1S80/amelogenin. 1996-NRC ÃŽÂ   Report; FBI starts mtDNA testing; first multiplex STR kits become available 1997-Core13 STRs defined; Y chromosome testing with STRs described. 1998-FBI Launches Combined DNA Index System: -CODIS USAs database of DNA profiles. -Only convicted criminals. Thomas Jefferson and Bill Clinton implicated with DNA. 1999- Multiplex STR kits of 13 core STRs and gender markers are validated: FBI stops testing DQA1, PM, D1S80. 2000-FBI and other labs stop running RFLP cases and convert to multiplex STR; PowerPlex 16 kit enables first single amplification of CODIS STRs. 2001-Identifier STR kit released with 5-dye chemistry; first Y- STR kit became available. 2002-FBI mtDNA population database released; Y-STR 20plex published. 2003-50th anniversary of Watson and Cricks discovery of DNA; The final draft of the Human Genome Project is released; US Database has 1 million DNA profiles of convicted offenders; The UK National DNA Database passes the 2 million sample mark. (Timeline taken form Table 1.1 of Forensic DNA Typing by John M. Butler)

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Tragedy in Jewish History Essay -- Jewish History

Tragedy in Jewish History The Jews are a people with a multitude of dilemmas. From the Israelite tribes to the prosperous modern day Israel , bigotry towards the Jews has been greatly evident. The Jewish race has acted as Escape Goat for many crisis throughout history including the black plague which swept across Europe in the 14th century. The establishment of Israel was a great incident was something the Jewish people were striving to obtain for generations. This, however, led to four major conflicts between Israel and the Arab countries. One of the most meaningful wars was the Six-Day War. Events such as the holocaust have also had a dramatic effect on world history and whose mysteries are still being unravelled. For twelve years following 1933 the Jews were persecuted by the Nazi's. Jewish businesses were boycotted and vandalized. By 1939,Jews were no longer citizens,could not attend public schools,engage in practically any business or profession, own any land, associate with any non-Jew or visit public places such as parks and museums. The victories of the German armies in the early years of World War II brought the majority of European Jewry under the Nazis. The Jews were deprived of human rights. The Jewish people were forced to live in Ghetto's which were separated from the main city. Hitler's plan of genocide was carried out with efficiency. The total number of Jews exterminated has been calculated at around 5,750,000. In Warsaw ,where approximately 400,000 Jews had once been concentrated,was reduced to a population of 60,000. they, virtually unarmed, resisted the German deportation order and had held back the regular German troops equipped with flame throwers,armou... ...ed it to its rightful owners , Israel. As is clearly visible through these few examples the Jewish race have had a very trailing history. This however is only a small representation of the rest of the Jewish problems. War , for example, is still present. In 1991 in the Persian Gulf Israel was continuously bombed by Iraq. If Israel would have fought back chances are there would have had most of the Arabian countries join in with Iraq to eliminate the common enemy. Therefore the problems are yet not resolved yet it seems there is never a perfect solution to any problem. Bibliography 1. Holocaust : the Jewish tragedy Gilbert,Martin, COLLI 1986 2. Israel & the Arabs: The June 1967 War Facts on file, INC. New York, N.Y. 1968 3. The Holocaust in Historical Perspective Yehuda Bauer University of Washington Press 1978