Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Gender Inequality In Gilgamesh Essay - 1339 Words

Throughout history, there has always been a gender inequality separating the roles and power of men from women. Most societies were patriarchal, emphasizing male dominance in society and directing women towards a more idle role so that they were more ornamental than influential. Through this gender division, women would take on the less powerful role as a nurturing mother, or caring wife over and over again in several ancient societies up to modern day societies. In Gilgamesh, male characters are emphasized much more than female characters, however, the female characters are crucial in the epic as they help to drive the plot forward through their actions. Despite the constant presence of gender roles throughout history, the women of†¦show more content†¦When it snorted a third time, the earth cracked open and Enkidu fell in, up to his waist, he jumped out and grabbed the Bull’s horns, it spat its slobber into his face, it lifted its tail and spewed dung all over himâ €  (Mitchell 137). The mass destruction caused by Ishtar demonstrates that her power is greater than the warriors’ and equal or greater than that of one of the strongest men of the story. Using the Bull of Heaven, Ishtar nearly defeats Enkidu, who is the equal of Gilgamesh, both described as large and strong men, a phallic symbol of power. Although Ishtar does not kill Gilgamesh with the Bull of Heaven, Enkidu is spat on and covered in dung, which is very humiliating, and as Gilgamesh’s equal, this action is equivalent to humiliating Gilgamesh. For a woman to humiliate the greatest phallic symbols in the epic demonstrates that the women of â€Å"Gilgamesh† are not the weaker gender. Not only is Ishtar’s revenge a display of her power, but it also demonstrates the diverse role of women in the epic, as she does not act as a stereotypical caring wife or mother. Ishtar acts as a mighty adversary to Gilgamesh, directing Gilgamesh to his quest as the death of the Bull of Heaven prompts the gods towards deciding Enkidu’s death; this death results in Gilgamesh’s quest for eternal life. Since the death of Enkidu is what causes Gilgamesh to go on his quest for immortality, Ishtar is the catalyst that causes the quest to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Slave Ship By Marcus Rediker - 1415 Words

The Slave Ship was written by Marcus Rediker and it tells several accounts of the African slave trade as well as the world of the middle passage. The author discusses the nature of the slave ship and the African paths to the middle passage. Rediker also mentions the lives of historical figures (Olaudah Equiano, James Field Stanfield, and John Newton) and the roles that they had during the Atlantic slave trade. For the African captives, the sailors, and captains, the slave ship was seen as a wooden, floating, traveling dungeon and a place of terror and survival, which are also the overall main themes of the book. In the book, Rediker states â€Å"A captain, a sailor, an African captive†¦found in the slave ship†¦a strange and potent combination of†¦show more content†¦Once the slave ship reached its destination, it would become a factory that would trade and sell living cargo. Therefore, the slave ship was a war machine, a mobile prison, and a factory. The theme of terror reoccurs throughout Rediker’s book. The slave ship was a symbol of terror to the Africans that were kidnapped and sold into slavery. For example, Chapter 4 of The Slave Ship discusses the life of Olaudah Equiano. Equiano was filled â€Å"with astonishment which was soon converted into terror† (Rediker 108) when he was first laid eyes on the ship where he would spend the next few weeks of his life. These emotions that Equiano experience when he first laid eyes on the slave ship may have been the same emotions that many of the other African captives felt when first saw the slave ship. James Field Stanfield even witnessed the terror that was caused when captives were boarding the slave ship. Both Equiano and Stanfield wrote about the astonishment turned into terror when reaching the slave ship. Africans also viewed the slave ship as a bringer terror in the form of war. Wars in Africa â€Å"often commenced when a slave ship appeared on the coast† (Rediker 98). The slave ship would provide the local African traders the tools (weapons) that they needed to bring them their captives. These wars that broke out created terror in Africa and were seen as a â€Å"euphemism for the organized theft of human beings† (Rediker 99), which were ultimately caused byShow MoreRelatedâ€Å"The Slave Ship: A Human History† Written By Marcus Rediker1903 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"The Slave Ship: A Human History† written by Marcus Rediker describes the horrifying experiences of Africans, and captains, and ship crewmen on their journey through the Middle Passage, the water way in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas. The use of slaves to cultivate crops in the Caribbean and America offered a great economy for the European countries by providing â€Å"free† labor and provided immense wealth for the Europeans. Rediker describes the slave migration by saying, â€Å"ThereRead MoreEssay on Slave Ship1383 Words   |  6 PagesThe Slave Ship by Marcus Rediker is a great fiction novel that describes the horrifying experiences of Africans, seamen, and captains on their journey through the Middle Passage. The Middle Passage marked the water way in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas. The use of slaves provided a great economy for the European countries due to the fact that these African slaves provided free labor while cultivating sugar cane in the Caribbean and America. Rediker describes the slave migrationRead MoreVillains of All Nations1105 Words   |  5 PagesThe Villains of All Nations is book written by Marcus Rediker that follows the origins of the pirate boom before and after the War of Spanish Succession. The book covers infamous pirates like Bartholomew Roberts, William Fly, and Edward Teach also known as Blackbeard.It discusses the grim environment of working the seas for the government, what lead many people to turn to piracy, the tale of the first women pirat es Anne Bonny and Mary Read, how piracy impacted slavery, the pirates bonds of brotherhoodRead MoreA Motley Crew in American Revolution 1 Essay713 Words   |  3 PagesA Motley Crew in the American Revolution – Vectors of Revolution In the chapter â€Å"A Motley Crew in the American Revolution† authors Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker imply that sailor, slave and labor revolts set the stage for the American Revolution. Throughout this chapter of the book â€Å"The Many-Headed Hydra† the authors listed and cited historical facts to support their claim that a †Motley Crew† (multiethnic, multiracial and organized group of people with a common goal) not just inspiredRead MoreThe Effects Of European Colonization2048 Words   |  9 Pagescould be considered a success. However, if we were to look at the ways in which slaves were brought to the new world, and the treatment of the of them; one could say that European colonization is not worthy of admiration. This, combined with events in the history of the Caribbean that challenged the power of the Europeans, questions the level to which we should call them great. Based on a reimagined look at piracy, the slave trade, plantation life and th e Haitian revolution, the European conquest ofRead MoreTimothy Brook s Vermeer s Hat1558 Words   |  7 Pageshowever, who were forced to migrate and serve as laborers to ensure cash crops grown in the New World reached European markets. Marcus Rediker’s Slave Ship describes in graphic detail how the Trans-Atlantic slave trade operated. Whereas Brook examines the bigger picture of how capitalism spread goods across the globe and brought different peoples together materially, Rediker analyzes the details: how the inherent hierarchy of the system affected the individuals. Thus, Rediker’s argument that capitalismRead MoreSouthern Slaves vs Northern Laborers1036 Words   |  5 Pagesthan the slaves of the south†. The free-laborers were not forced to America in ships, stripped of their culture, their language, and their freedom. The free-laborers were not enslaved. I do not agree with the shoemaker’s statement, but rather believe the Southern slaves were trea ted worse than Northern laborers. It may have been true that laborers in the North had harsh working conditions, but they did however, have their freedom. The laborers were not treated as if they were property. Slaves wereRead MoreThe Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay1730 Words   |  7 Pagesis called the Middle Passage or the â€Å"middle leg† of the Triangular Trade, which was the forceful voyage of African Americans from Africa to the New World. The Africans were taken from their homeland, boarded onto the dreadful ships, and scattered into the New World as slaves. 10- 16 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic during the 1500’s to the 1900’s and 10- 15 percent of them died during the voyage. Millions of men, women, and children left behind their personal possessions and lovedRead MoreChildren, Black, And Free, By Margaret Walker1143 Words   |  5 Pageswere shipped from Africa to America, the New World, which is referred to as the A tlantic Slave Trade. North America, Brazil, Spain, England, Portugal, France, and other countries took part in the Atlantic Slave Trade. In the early sixteenth century, the voyage lasted several months, but by the nineteenth century, the voyage was six weeks or less (The Slave Ship). Because of the small compartments on the ship, and the lack of space to move around, all types of diseases spread. Smallpox, syphilis,Read MoreSlaverys Global Impact and Economic Justifications, Yesterday and Today2490 Words   |  10 Pagescivilizations, slave labor built nations and empires in Europe, Egypt, Greece, Asia and Africa. Thousands of years later, the Portuguese, Dutch and English realized the profit value that a market in human capital would provide. Africans were exported from their homeland to the New World under the most miserable conditions imaginable. Prof. Marcus Rediker, author of The Slave Ship, A Human History says, â€Å"We’re fascinated by all the tall ships except th e most important one, and that’s the slave ship. And

Portfolio for Journal of Undergraduate Student- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about thePortfolio for Journal of Undergraduate Student Research. Answer: Branch, C. (2015). 3D Printing In Healthcare.The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research,16(1), 1-4. In the journal, the implication of 3D printing technology has been discussed with respect to healthcare. The author has evaluated the working process of 3D printing technology, the applications of the technology in the present as well as future and the limitations that the technology has. The article also discusses the 3d printing concepts and how the technology can be utilized to replace the CT scan technology (which is used in health care services). The article emphasizes the advantage of using 3D printing technology in replacing the scanning technologies that are used currently in healthcare systems. The article evaluates the limitations of the mentioned technology and how it cannot be used to scan at cellular levels. The current medical applications of the 3D printing technology has been discussed in the discussion section of the article such as prosthetics, polymers and artificial jaw bones. The author also discusses how the 3D printing technology can be used in the future such as stem cell research and advanced vasectomy. The journal concludes by stating the bright future that 3D printing technology has and how the technology has the power to change the landscape of the healthcare services in the coming years. Inspite of the advantages proposed by the technology, the author should have demonstrated the working process of the 3D printing technology. The article has failed to demonstrate a conclusive approach to the future applications of the technology. Moreover, the authors should have mentioned the technical aspects of the technology and how the users of the technology will react to the technology being used on them. Kianian, B., Tavassoli, S., Larsson, T.C. and Diegel, O., 2016. The Adoption of Additive Manufacturing Technology in Sweden.Procedia CIRP,40, pp.7-12. The authors have mentioned the use of additive manufacturing in this journal article with respect to Sweden. The article discusses the sample dataset of different users in this journal article. A survey has been provided in the article where a quantitative research has been taken to check the usage of technology among various users. Moreover, the article also discusses the different types of rapid prototyping and production. A total of 70 users has been taken where 55 users belong from institutes such as Swedish companies and research institutes. The extra 15 users has been taken from other fields excluding the mentioned institutes. The article states a final analysis which shows that the technology is used in small organizations mostly (around 58%) and the rest 42% are used in medium as well as large industries. The article evaluates the latest applications of 3D printing technology such as rapid prototyping. The authors have also emphasized on the different usage of the technology among different users in the country. The future applications of the mentioned technology has been evaluated in brief besides the present applications of additive manufacturing. The implications of the technology on the prospective users have been determined as well in the journal article by the authors. The article fails to determine the influence of additive manufacturing in workplaces beside the mentioned institutes. The article also fails to provide a conclusive result of the survey as the number of users were very limited. At least, 100 users should have been included in the survey for a better understanding of the context. Bibliography Branch, C. (2015). 3D Printing In Healthcare.The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research,16(1), 1-4. Kianian, B., Tavassoli, S., Larsson, T.C. and Diegel, O., 2016. The Adoption of Additive Manufacturing Technology in Sweden.Procedia CIRP,40, pp.7-12.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Issue in Media Law

Table of Contents Introduction About Snapchat Is Snapchat Safe? Legal Issues How Can Snapchat be regulated? Conclusion References Introduction The media was traditionally associated with print and broadcast, but the birth of internet media is slowly transforming communication. With the introduction of several online forums, people now have a variety of communication channels to use when either sending or looking for information.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Issue in Media Law specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, the traditional text messaging has been transformed into more interesting and engaging forums, all thanks to the development of applications such as Snapchat, Viber and WhatsApp. This report presents important insights into Snapchat. The paper provides an overview of the application including the inherent legal issues. About Snapchat Developed by two Stanford college students in 2011, Snapcha t is a mobile phone application that allows users to send and receive picture messages from their Android or Apple phones (Urban Dictionary, 2013). The founders were interested in developing an application that is engaging to users, but in which information circulated cannot be re-used in the future. With this in mind, Snapchat was designed to auto-delete pictures and videos sent within ten seconds of opening. This was meant to be a good security measure to guard users against the risk of other people downloading their images and inappropriately using them. However, this security check has been misused since users are aware that it is impossible to obtain the information circulated later on. For this reason, Snapchat has become a platform for bullying and sexting (Urban Dictionary, 2013). Just like any other application, Snapchat has both pros and cons. The application provides a free new way of communication, which allows users to be goofy without fearing repercussions. However, it is not possible to record long videos using Snapchat. Besides, the application does not provide any self-privacy as it claims since users have found means of saving and misusing photos. This, therefore, leads me to the question; just how safe is Snapchat? Is Snapchat Safe? Every user of an online forum is usually concerned about his/her privacy. While Snapchat promised its users of their privacy, the users felt deceived when news broke out in 2013 that the company has been handing unopened photos to the American law enforcement agency and now the recent hacking. Besides, Snapcha does not store all the information in its sandbox to ensure that all the information is auto-deleted. There has been proof that Snapchat stores some information outside the sandbox hence not everything is usually deleted. The hackers would not have obtained the photos if everything is usually deleted. This is a clear breach of users’ privacy rights.Advertising Looking for report on common law? L et's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, the Snapchat’s find friends feature is not protected making it easy for hackers to retrieve information about users and their friends. In simple, Snapchat is not safe and users should be wary of their privacy when sending their photos through the application. Nevertheless, it is a great application that is easy to use and a faster way of communicating. You will always find it intriguing so long as you use the application for the right purpose. Legal Issues There were claims sometime in October 2014 that Snapchat had been hacked and user photos where being circulated in 4chan.org (Isaac, 2014). The company admitted that the application had been hacked by another application, Snapsaved, which has the ability to save Snapchat images. While many other online service providers can get hacked, many users are left wondering whether it is true that the images actually get deleted or they are s tored somewhere within the application server. Even Snapchat managers admitted that they are not able to prevent the recipients from capturing and saving images using other devices. Hence, the privacy of Snapchat users is at risk. However, Snapchat managers are doing their best to regulate the usage of the application. For instance, the company admitted handing unopened photos of its users to American law enforcement agency as a way of taking precautions to ensure that information being circulated using the application is safe (Holpuch, 2013). While this caused an uproar among users, with many questioning whether images get completely deleted from the server, the company defended itself and stated that it was not possible to provide images already opened since the application deletes images a few seconds after opening. The company is also considering adjusting the application so that it is possible to view images repeatedly for 24 hours before they are deleted. This will give law en forcers a chance to investigate and track down misusers of Snapchat. But are governments doing enough to regulate internet messaging services such as Snapchat? Regulating social media forums has been a challenge mainly because of the large number of users involved and the worldwide scope of their usage (Holpuch, 2013). Nevertheless, governments are to blame for not being able to develop robust laws to regulate the usage of applications like Snapchat. In Australia, for example, Snapchat is considered a small media platform, which does not fall under the legal scope of the federal government’s crackdown hence crimes committed often go unpunished (Johnson, 2014).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Issue in Media Law specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While some governments like the United States have set up bodies to deal with crimes emanating from social media forums, such bodies often have no legal mandate to deal with the offenders directly, but can only ask managers of the forums to remove information considered inappropriate. There is a need for mechanisms that focus on punishing individual offenders to deter misuse of applications like Snapchat. How Can Snapchat be regulated? Despite the challenges, there are ways that can assist in regulating information being circulated in Snapchat. First, law enforcers should make it a policy for companies to take responsibility for allowing illegal material to be circulated through their forums. Companies that are reluctant to remove illegal material once asked to do so should be charged under civil law for not discharging their responsibility accordingly. Second, social media services tolerating the circulating of inappropriate material should be named and shamed. However, this might not be effective as the culprits will be left untouched. Besides, embarrassing the companies is not a guarantee that its users will stop circulating inappropriate i nformation. Third, given that the majority of social media users are underage, laws governing cyberbullying will be appropriate. Such laws should cover both big and small companies. In Australia, for instance, the government enacted a law to curb cyberbullying against children, but this law does not apply to small companies such as Snapchat since the government does not consider their usage significant enough to warrant regulation (Bilbao, 2014). Last, users of Snapchat should be human and stop misusing this application. They should stop for a moment and imagine that they might need the person they are currently bullying in the future. Even without laws, users need to act responsibly and self-regulate their actions (Jefferson, 2014). Users have a moral obligation to use the application for its intended purpose, which is connecting with friends and not bullying and sexting. Conclusion From the discussion, it is clear that Snapchat has privacy issues. But which application does not ha ve flaws? Even Facebook has flaws. It is up to the government to up its game and regulates the usage of social media. Snapchat is fast and has transformed text messaging all over the world. It is an application I would recommend to anyone who loves sending pictures and videos. References Bilbao, B. (2014). Cyberbullying laws in Australia don’t cover Snapchat. Web.Advertising Looking for report on common law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Holpuch, A. (2013). Snapchat admits to handing unopened ‘snaps’ to US law enforcement. The Guardian Magazine. Web. Isaac, M. (2014). Links to photos said to be stolen from Snapchat users flood message boards. The New York Times. Web. Jefferson, R. (2014). The deal with Snapchat safety. Web. Johnson, B. (2014). Snapchat not covered by cyberbullying laws. The Sydney Morning Gerald. Web. Urban Dictionary. (2013). Snapchat. Web. This report on Issue in Media Law was written and submitted by user Cory Z. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Data Collection Essays

Data Collection Essays Data Collection Essay Data Collection Essay Ans. 1. Zimbabwe started selling diamonds and earned more than  £1 billion by selling diamonds (The Press Association). The soldiers forced people to work harder. They also tortured them and their children with heavily armed force. There is no official estimate for the revenue from selling stones and diamonds in that sector but an unofficial estimated range is showing  £1.2 billion from that field in Zimbabwe (The Press Association). The eastern alluvial diamond fields of diamond estimated to meet one-forth demand of the total demand of diamond across the world in 2006. They earned high revenue and profit by trading diamonds into several countries, like, Israel, India, Lebanon and Russia. The government of Zimbabwe earned $20 million from the legal sale of diamonds in 2008 (The Press Association). But the important thing is that most of the earned income and revenue of mining diamonds is illegal and it has no governmental or official record. If a Chinese mining company wants to s et up a legal partnership with Zimbabwe government then it will achieve great revenue with high profit and growth through mining diamond in Marange which is a newly founded diamond field in Zimbabwe. This particular field of diamond is situated in the eastern field which earned high revenue through diamond mining in Zimbabwe. To expand their trade facilities, they arranged some private planes to bring buyers from foreign countries. Most of the diamond fields in Zimbabwe are illegal and distributing conflicting diamonds to many countries. These illegal mining fields are expecting high profit and thus they forced poor people to work harder under the mechanism of ‘Dig or Die’ (The Press Association). Poor people are bound to work under the heavily armed security guard in these illegal fields of diamond. According to Abbey Chikane, the Kimberley Process monitor for Zimbabwe, marked the Marange Diamond field in Zimbabwe as a certified diamond field to export conflict-free diamonds to meet the demand of diamond across the world (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). The human right organization of Zimbabwe is protesting the diamond mining though several illegal diamond fields which are doing illegal activities through killing many poor helpless men, raping women and torturing children to get hard work from them. To solve these problems, the government of Zimbabwe has become very serious to set up legal diamond mines to export conflict-free diamonds. Q.2. Who controls the Mining Development Corporation? Do they have any existing joint venture partners? Who in the Zimbabwean government will influence decisions regarding the investment? Ans. 2. Diamond exporting and supplying business is currently controlled by the government of Zimbabwe. Though it is controlled by the government, there is a presence of powerful illegal diamond fields in Zimbabwe and these fields are engaged in several illegal and non-ethical activities with the help of the armed police and security guard force of Zimbabwe. The presence of political battle and high rate of corruption in the Zimbabwean economic, political and social atmospheres guided the government to a wrong direction. Being the Zimbabwe monitor of the world diamond control body, Abbey Chikane, also stated that the diamonds are ready for sale in the international market to provide minimum international standard of diamond (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). According to the investors, the mining of diamond in Marange was conducted through use of virtual slaves under the control of armed soldiers in 2008 (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). Therefore, this field is not work ing legally or the government may be not serious about fact of diamond mining in Zimbabwe. The Kimberley Process is an international monitoring body to control conflict-free diamond supply from certified diamond fields under governmental rules and regulations. Mr. Chikane announced that Zimbabwe can start trading the Marange diamonds under proper guidance of the government of Zimbabwe. According to him, the Zimbabwe government has taken several effective steps to regulate legal diamond fields and to remove illegal sources of diamond. The Kimberley Process did not consider the fact of taking steps against governments which violated the rules of the human-rights organization in Zimbabwe in diamond mining. The Kimberley team investigated that the heavily armed security forces killed many people, raped women who were illegally mining in the Marange fields in July, 2008 (Mutsaka, Wonacott and Childress, 2010). But the officials denied these charges against them and the government and the y told that the security guards were there to give protection to the governmental part of the Marange diamond fields in Zimbabwe. The Kimberley members restricted sales of diamonds by the Marange diamond fields as they were supplying non-certified stones in the international market with proper certificates. This helped to get certification for the diamond fields in Zimbabwe. It also allowed exporting several other legal diamond fields into the foreign market. Zimbabwes government earned $20 million from the legal fields of diamonds in 2008 (The Press Association). There are some political conflicts in Zimbabwe in the issue of diamond exporting and mining from legal and illegal diamond fields of the country. After the election in Zimbabwe in 2008, the situation in Marange diamond field has become very much concern about their effectiveness of the Kimberley Process. A top member of the World Diamond Council, Martin Rapaport reigned from the Kimberley Process to protest against their a ctivity and controlling mechanism of the process. Human rights organizations in Zimbabwe are now become very much concern about the export of diamond in the international market after getting the green signal to restart the sale of diamonds from the Marange diamond fields, where heavily armed soldiers deployed by the President Robert Mugabe have been charged for conducting illegal activities (Peta, 2010). The Zimbabwean government investigated that more than 4 million carats of diamonds were founded from the controversial fields of the Zimbabwean diamond fields. Marange was one of them. The estimated value of the total sale of diamonds will be around $1.7bn according to the Zimbabwes 2010 budget and that will be very much helpful to provide a boost to the economic condition of Zimbabwe (Peta, 2010). Investment from the foreign investors is always encouraged the mining development corporation of Zimbabwe. To meet the international demand of diamond, they are gradually expanding their international business through legal export of conflict-free diamonds of certified diamond fields of Zimbabwe. To increase their revenue, the government of Zimbabwe is very much interested to incorporate many foreign investors across the world. The director of the Centre for Research and Development which is a Zimbabwean human-rights organization was tracking the operations in Marange diamond field in Zimbabwe (Peta, 2010). According to them at the end of 2008, there was no improvement in the condition of the human rights in the Marange diamond field. Mr. Maguwu, the director of the research and development centre, also showed how diamonds from the Marange Diamond field were being smuggled out from Zimbabwe to Mozambique and it became a profitable strategy for the soldiers of Zimbabwe through illegal diamond export to other foreign countries (Peta, 2010). The Zimbabwe government forced the African Consolidated Resources to take back their claims against the government and their officials in the issue of diamond supply and export from the Marange diamond field in Zimbabwe at the end of 2006. The high court of Zimbabwe decided that all diamond mines should hand over their power of illegal diamond export to the central bank of Zimbabwe and those mines could get back their power after resolving the dispute in 2008 (Peta, 2010). Therefore, after the political and social battle in Zimbabwean diamond fields, it has become mandatory to get certified by the government, the diamond research and development centre and also by the human rights organization of Zimbabwe. Game Theory: Q.3. Game theory is very useful in planning strategy. Your firm, if it decides that it is a good investment, wants to win the rights to develop the mine. Explain how you can use game theory to plot a winning strategy. Ans. 3. If the Chinese firm decides that it will be a good investment and also wants to win the rights to develop the diamond mines in Zimbabwe, then they should follow a strategic plan with game theory application. The firm can invest in the Marange diamond field through legal contract of partnership with the mining company. They should be aware of the fact that there are no illegal activities in the mining field against the human rights organization in Zimbabwe. The government of Zimbabwe should follow ethics of the social and political aspects in the case of diamond mining from different legal fields of diamond. According to the perfect formation of the game of this case of development in the field of diamonds, the most effective and suitable pay-off will be the combination of the investment of the Chinese firm and the investment in the legal fields of certified diamonds in Zimbabwe. The investment of the Chinese firm will be more profitable if the firm can invest into a legal fie ld of diamonds, rather than investment into an illegal field of diamonds. There are some other factors related with social, ethical and legal perspectives of the country in the case of diamond mining. These aspects should be highly concerned by the Chinese company who is very much interested to get with some Zimbabwean mining company through legal partnership contract. The Chinese company can get high revenue and profit if it makes a contract with an illegal company but other social, legal and ethical aspects will not be there. There may be several strategies but only one pay-off will be economically, financially, legally and ethically viable for this case. Pricing Strategies: Q.4. Explain why the price of diamonds in international markets is so high. Note that a good answer to this question will involve research into the pricing strategies of the firms that sell diamonds as well as the application of basic economic principles. Ans. 4. The price of diamond is very high in the international market. If demand increases for a commodity, the price of that commodity will also increase keeping other factors as unchanged. The demand curve of a commodity is downward slopping in the price of the commodity and the quantity demanded for the commodity framework. Demand Curve of commodity: The price of the commodity and the quantity demanded of the commodity are taken respectively as the vertical and the horizontal line of the diagram. The demand of diamond is gradually increasing in the international market. In the above diagram, according to the basic concept of the demand curve, the demand is dependent on the price of the commodity. Therefore, the price of any commodity should also be dependent on the demand of the commodity. In general, if the demand increases, the price should fall according to the demand curve. But in this case, the price of diamonds is gradually increasing with the increase in the price of the diamonds. The price of the diamonds is very high in the international market to reduce the demand of diamonds in scarcity of diamonds in the global market. The scarcity of diamonds is the main reason for the increasing price of diamonds in the international market. At present, there are few diamond mines from which high quality diamonds can be found. On th e other hand, there are few diamond mining companies in the world. Therefore, the competition in these companies is negligible. If a firm with monopoly power in a market increases the price of its commodity, there will be no change in the demand of the commodity. This advantage for the diamond mining companies encourages them to increase the price to achieve high revenue and profit from this business. In the competitive market the firms can not increase the prices of their products because if they increase the price the demand of the product will reduce in those firms and the consumer will prefer to buy from any other firm at lower price of the commodity. There is another important reason for the increment of the price of diamonds in the international market. Most of the exported diamonds are smuggled out from the African diamond fields in different countries. These smugglers have fixed very high price for these diamonds in the foreign market. Though this reason is illegal and not p roviding any economic theory, it is a very important reason for the high price of diamonds. Ethics: Q.5. What is the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme? What are the elements of the scheme? Does this investment satisfy these? Why or why not? Ans. 5. Mines Minister of Zimbabwe, Obert Mpofu, stated that more than 90% of the total demand from the international market was achieved by the trade watchdog, the Kimberley Process group in November in 2009 (BBC News, 2009). The armed police force in the diamond mining field killed more than 200 poor people by torturing them at the Marange field of diamonds (The Press Association). The activists wanted to remove these pathetic and illegal activities which were gradually reducing the socio-economic culture of the economy. They also announced to reform the planning and controlling strategies of diamond fields in Zimbabwe and they fixed 2010 as the deadline of this reformation (BBC News, 2009). The Kimberley process is a controlling body under the governmental power in Zimbabwe. With the help of this organization, the government earned a lot revenue and profit but it was not helpful to maintain social, legal and ethical aspects of the economy. To achieve high profit and growth, this o rganization forced people to work harder in the diamond fields of Marange. The security guards killed many people, raped women and forced children to work continuously in the fields. The Kimberley Process decided to work against the human rights groups of Zimbabwe. Therefore, this process is not concern about the ethics of the organization and they are away from maintaining social responsibilities in Zimbabwe. The government denied these charges against their officials and they are still not very much worried about the fact. The 70-member Kimberley Process group approved a compromise diamond contract at a summit in Namibia in 2009 (BBC News, 2009). To maintain balance in the socio-economic aspects of the economy, an independent monitoring body with independent inspector was established. This organization mainly monitors the diamond mining from the controversial fields. As this process is completely away from maintaining ethics and any other social responsibilities, the investment in this organization will not provide any knowledge of social, economic, legal and ethical responsibilities. This will not be suitable or helpful for the future in a long-run perspective. Q.6. Do you think that this investment is ethical? Why or why not? Ans. 6. Investment in this organization or process will not be an ethical decision for the Chinese mining company. This process helped to work illegally to achieve high profit in an illegal diamond mining sector. This process is not maintaining any ethics which should be helpful for long-term planning. This process also affects the environmental degradation in Zimbabwe. It is also damaging farming irrigation systems in Zimbabwe (Conflict Blood Diamonds, 2009). If the Chinese mining company wants to observe a sustainable growth and development for a long-term perspective, they should not go for the partnership contract with the Marange Diamond mining fields and should not even go for investing in these illegal unauthorized and non-certified diamond mining fields in Zimbabwe.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Frigid Length

My poppys house is old. It was originally a colonial farmhouse. Now when most people look at my poppys house they think â€Å"what a mess† or that it needs a lot of work. Both are true. However, to me it is a place of fun, exploration, adventure and learning. His house is located in Tolland, Mass, which is a small hill town. My poppy has over one hundred and eighty acres of land. Most of it is woods, but he also has a beaver pond, a ravine, and a crab apple orchard amongst other things on his property. Hiking to and from these places is a given. The hikes can be long and hard if you are not used to the trails. I always feel good after walking in his woods. Hikes usually don’t occur in the winter, unlike in this story. Winter came early that year. It was cold, icy and very snowy. At my house, down in Agawam, a suburban town, the snow was about a foot deep. In Tolland, however, there’s usually more. My sister and I had packed our overnight bags and were ready for our sleep over at Poppy’s. I was twelve. Emily, being my younger sister by two years, was ten. We couldn’t wait for the fun to start. Our cousins, Isaac and Tim were already up at the farm. I don’t know why we call Poppy’s home â€Å"the farm† seeing as how it really isn’t one any more. Emily was a fourth grader. You could spot her in any crowd, no matter the size, because of her appearance. Despite her fiery hair and lanky height, she has a very quiet and shy personality, or at least she did then. Tim and Isaac were both in fifth grade. Although they were close, their personalities were very different. Tim was the quiet, bookworm and video gamer. He preferred staying inside. Isaac was the loud, hyper active, troublemaker of the family. Often enough, he’d find himself in sticky situations. The morning after Emily and I were dropped off, Poppy suggested we take a hike to the beaver pond. It had frozen solid and Emily, Isaac and I were really excited to see it. Tim, on the other hand, chose to stay back and play on his X-box. Poppy said we’d go around noon. The rest of that morning Isaac practically begged Tim to join us. Tim thought we were crazy though, for wanting to hike in the snow. Soon Poppy and the three of us were bundled up and ready to hike. In the summer we could take the truck most of the way but with all the snow on the ground we were going to have to walk a total of about three miles, there and back. So onward we trudged. All the way, there were puddles that were frozen over and looked a little brownish. We found that when we stepped in them our boots got soaked. About halfway to the pond, Isaac wanted to go out on his own to try to find it himself. Poppy said it was fine, seeing as how Isaac knew the woods really well. Eventually we reached the pond. The scene was beautiful in the winter. Snow had drifted on top of the ice, making it sparkle. The surrounding trees looked like they were from a winter postcard. With the addition of the slight breeze, peace surrounded us. My poppy had gone out on the ice just yesterday and all was fine so he started out again. After asking Poppy if he was sure it was safe, Emily and I started to follow. I still couldn’t keep a bad feeling from whispering in my ear. Poppy was probably seven feet in front of me and I was probably four feet in front of Emily. Just as that whispering stopped nagging at me, I noticed a large patch of light brown on the ice just a few paces in front of Poppy. Something inside of me said to yell: â€Å"Stop!!! Thin Ice!!!† Unfortunately, Poppy didn’t heed my warning quick enough and with one more step, crash went the ice, leaving Poppy in icy water up to his armpits and holding onto the ice in front of him. Emily and my eyes were like saucers and our jaws must have dropped as we edged very slowly over to him. Once we had edged close enough I was too shocked to do anything but Emily bent down in order to help pull him out. Incredibly she managed to do so. In that moment I knew that we had to get back to the house quickly. Poppy was almost completely soaked in icy water in the middle of the winter and he, Emily and I were a mile and a half away from the house surrounded by woods. I was worried about hypothermia setting in. We got out of the area as quick as we could and started our long hike back. About third of the way towards the house the breeze had gotten a little more forceful and we could hear a faint â€Å"Help. Help.† It took us a moment to realize it was Isaac. Poppy told Emily and me to go and find him. Emily took off as quick as someone could possibly run in the snow. I, on the other hand was hesitant. My mind was torn. A large part of me, didn’t want to leave Poppy, still worrying about hypothermia; while the other knew Isaac apparently needed help. When Poppy noticed that I was hanging back he urged me to go on ahead so I started off to find Isaac with one swift, concerned look back at Poppy. I caught up to Emily and together we ran ahead, trying to find where Isaac was. After a while we turned back because we could no longer hear him. So we started back in the direction we came and found Poppy, who was climbing into some bushes. He had found Isaac and was pulling him out of some Mountain Laurels. When Isaac was free from their grasp, he claimed that the bushes were actually pricker-bushes. Then I noticed another problem. Poppy’s pants and jacket were no longer soaked through. Instead there was ice build up about an inch thick. When we knocked on them it felt and sounded as if we were knocking on plywood. When Isaac noticed Poppy’s new iceman look he questioned it. Emily and I explained what had happened, as we started walking. We still had a long way to go. The longer we walked, the more Poppy wanted to keep stopping. I wouldn’t let him stop. Somehow I knew he needed to keep his body heat up. The only way I could think to do that was to keep walking. I also knew that he was getting tired, probably from the extreme cold. That thought of hypothermia scared me as much as it kept me going. I knew what could happen if Poppy didn’t get warm soon, and that was not on my agenda. We eventually came to his once flourishing, but small, blueberry patch. I knew it wasn’t far now. Emily and Isaac decided to go back through the small cemetery. That path was the harder choice. It required more work because the path was not as well used. I, however, stayed with poppy and took the easier and more direct path. I don’t think that Isaac and Emily fully understood the situation and what dangers were possible. I had only just watched a documentary, in school, that had a case of hypothermia in it. I was only in sixth grade at the time, which wasn’t much of an age difference compared with my sister and cousins, but in this situation I realized more than they did. After what seemed like forever, we made it out of the woods. The house was in view now. Thankfully, this time we could walk on the main road. Emily and Isaac exited shortly after us as we headed to the warmth of the house. As soon as we entered the house I said to poppy: â€Å"Get out of those clothes, take a hot shower and then go to bed!† I assured him we would be fine for the time being. Poppy, not paying my advice any attention, just changed clothes. Then he went about his day as if nothing had happened. That night he strongly regretted not listening to me. He was beginning to feel the effects of the day’s events. I remember him telling me that he wished he had had that hot shower, as I suppressed an â€Å"I told you so.† The next day was the day that Poppy would drop us all off at our homes. Within a short amount of time the whole family knew about Poppy’s little icy dip. They were concerned at first, but now these events are just considered a family story. When I look back now, I think of the lessons that these events taught me. One example of this was learning to trust my intuition. Often times it’s those life lessons that are of great value and they can only be taught by experience.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

What are the benefits and weakness of using focus groups Essay

What are the benefits and weakness of using focus groups - Essay Example Assuming these to be correct, structured group discussion is a relevant procedure to obtain people’s opinions, feelings and perceptions, although the interactions between group members have to be borne in mind. (Blankenship, Breen, G.E. and Dutka, A., 1999, 61) The information obtained can be about what each person feels and thinks, but it can also be influenced by a phenomenon such as ‘groupthink’, through which people conform to what others believe. In judging the popularity and the effectiveness of focus groups, it is important to assess the advantages of the method as well as its limitations. In adult education, focus groups perhaps offer a more concrete opportunity for participants and researchers to learn from the process (Field, 2000, 330), being a powerful way of engaging with professionals, policy makers and end-users. The benefits of using such an iterative process in which ‘people’s views and understandings are shared, debated, challenged and changed’ (Field 2000, 325) are more important than the potential disadvantages. Morgan (1999, 142) notes that the majority of the published articles about focus groups refers to the use of this method along with other methods, such as individual in-depth interviews or with surveys. In the research process, focus groups can be used at different points: at the preliminary or exploratory stage of a study; a preparation for decisions about the precise objectives and design of the study; for the collection of the main data; in the closing period of a study to interpret findings, or to generate further perspecti ves for research. Use of focus groups can be seen in applied research as a strategy for collecting data, especially when doing qualitative research to tap peoples subjective experiences (Sullivan, 2001, 23) Focus groups do not invade peoples privacy in order to come to